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Articoli e pubblicazioni sulla ricerca per la cura del Parkinson

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2. Redgrave P, Rodriguez M, Smith Y, et al. Goal-directed and habitual control in the basal ganglia: implications for Parkinson’s disease. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2010;11(11):760–72. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
3. Wu T, Hallett M. Neural correlates of dual task performance in patients with Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2007;422(3):164–8.
4. Schapira AH, Agid Y, Barone P, et al. Perspectives on recent advances in the understanding and treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Eur J Neurol. 2009;16(10):1090–9. [PubMed]
5. Xu Q, Park Y, Huang X, et al. Physical activities and future risk of Parkinson disease. Neurology. 2010;75(4):341–8. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
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7. Cotman CW, Berchtold NC. Physical activity and the maintenance of cognition: learning from animal models. Alzheimers Dement. 2007;3(2 Suppl):S30–7. [PubMed]
8. Berchtold NC, Castello N, Cotman CW. Exercise and time-dependent benefits to learning and memory. Neuroscience. 2010;167(3):588–97. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
9. Petzinger GM, Fisher BE, Van Leeuwen JE, et al. Enhancing neuroplasticity in the basal ganglia: the role of exercise in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord. 2010;25 (Suppl 1):S141–5. [PubMed]
10. Kleim JA, Jones TA. Principles of experience-dependent neural plasticity: implications for rehabilitation after brain damage. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2008;51(1):S225–39. [PubMed]
11. Sudhof TC, Malenka RC. Understanding synapses: past, present, and future. Neuron. 2008;60 (3):469–76. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
12. Fisher BE, Wu AD, Salem GJ, et al. The effect of exercise training in improving motor performance and corticomotor excitability in people with early Parkinson’s disease. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2008;89(7):1221–9. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
13. Schenkman M, Hall DA, Baron AE, Schwartz RS, Mettler P, Kohrt WM. Exercise for People in Early- or Mid-Stage Parkinson Disease: A 16-Month Randomized Controlled Trial. Phys Ther. 2012;92 (11):1395–410. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
14. Farley BG, Koshland GF. Training BIG to move faster: the application of the speed-amplitude relation as a rehabilitation strategy for people with Parkinson’s disease. Exp Brain Res. 2005;167(3):462–7. [PubMed]
15. Fox CM, Ramig LO, Ciucci MR, Sapir S, McFarland DH, Farley BG. The science and practice of LSVT/LOUD: neural plasticity-principled approach to treating individuals with Parkinson disease and other neurological disorders. Semin Speech Lang. 2006;27(4):283–99. [PubMed]
16. Corcos DM, Comella CL, Goetz CG. Tai chi for patients with Parkinson’s disease. N Engl J Med. 2012;366(18):1737–8. [PubMed]
17. Li F, Harmer P, Fitzgerald K, et al. Tai chi and postural stability in patients with Parkinson’s disease. N Engl J Med. 2012;366(6):511–9. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
18. Hackney ME, Earhart GM. Effects of dance on balance and gait in severe Parkinson disease: A case study. Disabil Rehabil. 2010;32(8):679–84. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
19. Hackney ME, Earhart GM. Effects of dance on movement control in Parkinson’s disease: a comparison of Argentine tango and American ballroom. J Rehabil Med. 2009;41(6):475–81. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
20. Combs SA, Diehl MD, Staples WH, et al. Boxing Training for Patients With Parkinson Disease: A Case Series. Phys Ther. 2010;91(1):132–42. [PubMed]
21. Alberts JL, Linder SM, Penko AL, Lowe MJ, Phillips M. It is not about the bike, it is about the pedaling: forced exercise and Parkinson’s disease. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2011;39(4):177–86. [PubMed]
22. Ridgel AL, Vitek JL, Alberts JL. Forced, not voluntary, exercise improves motor function in Parkinson’s disease patients. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2009;23(6):600–8. [PubMed]
23. Frenkel-Toledo S, Giladi N, Peretz C, Herman T, Gruendlinger L, Hausdorff JM. Effect of gait speed on gait rhythmicity in Parkinson’s disease: variability of stride time and swing time respond differently. J Neuroengineering Rehabil. 2005;2:23. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
24. Herman T, Giladi N, Gruendlinger L, Hausdorff JM. Six weeks of intensive treadmill training improves gait and quality of life in patients with Parkinson’s disease: a pilot study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2007;88(9):1154–8. [PubMed]
25. Herman T, Giladi N, Hausdorff JM. Treadmill training for the treatment of gait disturbances in people with Parkinson’s disease: a mini-review. J Neural Transm. 2009;116(3):307–18. [PubMed]
26. Skidmore FM, Patterson SL, Shulman LM, Sorkin JD, Macko RF. Pilot safety and feasibility study of treadmill aerobic exercise in Parkinson disease with gait impairment. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2008;45(1):117–24. [PubMed]
27. Canning CG, Allen NE, Dean CM, Goh L, Fung VS. Home-based treadmill training for individuals with Parkinson’s disease: a randomized controlled pilot trial. Clin Rehabil. 2012;26(9):817–26. [PubMed]
28. Miyai I, Fujimoto Y, Yamamoto H, et al. Long-term effect of body weight-supported treadmill training in Parkinson’s disease: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2002;83(10):1370–3. [PubMed]
29. Frazzitta G, Bertotti G, Riboldazzi G, et al. Effectiveness of intensive inpatient rehabilitation treatment on disease progression in Parkinsonian patients: a randomized controlled trial with 1-year follow-up. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2012;26(2):144–50. [PubMed]
30. Allen NE, Canning CG, Sherrington C, et al. The effects of an exercise program on fall risk factors in people with Parkinson’s disease: a randomized controlled trial. Mov Disord. 2010;25(9):1217–25. [PubMed]
31. Allen NE, Sherrington C, Paul SS, Canning CG. Balance and falls in Parkinson’s disease: A meta-analysis of the effect of exercise and motor training. Mov Disord. 2011 [PubMed]
32. Hackney ME, Kantorovich S, Levin R, Earhart GM. Effects of tango on functional mobility in Parkinson’s disease: a preliminary study. J Neurol Phys Ther. 2007;31(4):173–9. [PubMed]
33. Foster ER, Golden L, Duncan RP, Earhart GM. Community-based argentine tango dance program is associated with increased activity participation among individuals with Parkinson’s disease. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2013;94(2):240–9. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
34. Duncan RP, Earhart GM. Randomized controlled trial of community-based dancing to modify disease progression in Parkinson disease. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2012;26(2):132–43. [PubMed]
35. Nieuwboer A, De Weerdt W, Dom R, Bogaerts K. Prediction of outcome of physiotherapy in advanced Parkinson’s disease. Clin Rehabil. 2002;16(8):886–93. [PubMed]
36. de Bruin N, Doan JB, Turnbull G, et al. Walking with music is a safe and viable tool for gait training in Parkinson’s disease: the effect of a 13-week feasibility study on single and dual task walking. Parkinsons Dis. 2010;2010:483530. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
37. dos Santos Mendes FA, Pompeu JE, Modenesi Lobo A, et al. Motor learning, retention and transfer after virtual-reality-based training in Parkinson’s disease–effect of motor and cognitive demands of games: a longitudinal, controlled clinical study. Physiotherapy. 2012;98(3):217–23. [PubMed]
38. Rochester L, Baker K, Hetherington V, et al. Evidence for motor learning in Parkinson’s disease: acquisition, automaticity and retention of cued gait performance after training with external rhythmical cues. Brain Res. 2010;1319:103–11. [PubMed]
39. Cameron IG, Watanabe M, Pari G, Munoz DP. Executive impairment in Parkinson’s disease: Response automaticity and task switching. Neuropsychologia. 2010;48(7):1948–57. [PubMed]
40. DeLong M, Wichmann T. Changing views of basal ganglia circuits and circuit disorders. Clin EEG Neurosci. 2010;41(2):61–7. [PubMed]
41. Calabresi P, Pisani A, Centonze D, Bernardi G. Synaptic plasticity and physiological interactions between dopamine and glutamate in the striatum. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 1997;21(4):519–23. [PubMed]
42. Shen W, Flajolet M, Greengard P, Surmeier DJ. Dichotomous dopaminergic control of striatal synaptic plasticity. Science. 2008;321(5890):848–51. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
43. Kreitzer AC, Malenka RC. Endocannabinoid-mediated rescue of striatal LTD and motor deficits in Parkinson’s disease models. Nature. 2007;445(7128):643–7. [PubMed]
44. Picconi B, Centonze D, Hakansson K, et al. Loss of bidirectional striatal synaptic plasticity in L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. Nat Neurosci. 2003;6(5):501–6. [PubMed]
45. Beeler JA, Cao ZF, Kheirbek MA, et al. Dopamine-dependent motor learning: insight into levodopa’s long-duration response. Ann Neurol. 2010;67(5):639–47. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
46. Beeler JA, Frazier CR, Zhuang X. Putting desire on a budget: dopamine and energy expenditure, reconciling reward and resources. Front Integr Neurosci. 2012;6:49. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
47. Knowlton BJ, Mangels JA, Squire LR. A neostriatal habit learning system in humans. Science. 1996;273:1399–402. [PubMed]
48. Fisher BE, Li Q, Nacca A, et al. Treadmill Exercise Elevates Striatal Dopamine D2 Receptor Binding Potential In Patients with Early Parkinson’s Disease. NeuroReport. 2013 In Press. [PubMed]
49. Beall E, Lowe M, Alberts JL, et al. The Effect of Forced-Exercise Therapy for Parkinson’s Disease on Motor Cortex Functional Connectivity. Brain connectivity. 2013 In Press. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
50. Verschueren SM, Swinnen SP, Dom R, De Weerdt W. Interlimb coordination in patients with Parkinson’s disease: motor learning deficits and the importance of augmented information feedback. Exp Brain Res. 1997;113(3):497–508. [PubMed]
51. Onla-or S, Winstein CJ. Determining the optimal challenge point for motor skill learning in adults with moderately severe Parkinson’s disease. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2008;22(4):385–95. [PubMed]
52. Black JE, Isaacs KR, Anderson BJ, Alcantara AA, Greenough WT. Learning causes synaptogenesis, whereas motor activity causes angiogenesis, in cerebellar cortex of adult rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87(14):5568–72. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
53. Mirelman A, Maidan I, Herman T, Deutsch JE, Giladi N, Hausdorff JM. Virtual reality for gait training: can it induce motor learning to enhance complex walking and reduce fall risk in patients with Parkinson’s disease? J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2011;66(2):234–40. [PubMed]
54. Pompeu JE, Mendes FA, Silva KG, et al. Effect of Nintendo Wii-based motor and cognitive training on activities of daily living in patients with Parkinson’s disease: A randomised clinical trial. Physiotherapy. 2012;98(3):196–204. [PubMed]
55. Owen AM. Cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease: the role of frontostriatal circuitry. Neuroscientist. 2004;10(6):525–37. [PubMed]
56. Ekman U, Eriksson J, Forsgren L, Mo SJ, Riklund K, Nyberg L. Functional brain activity and presynaptic dopamine uptake in patients with Parkinson’s disease and mild cognitive impairment: a cross-sectional study. Lancet Neurol. 2012;11(8):679–87. [PubMed]
57. Godefroy O, Azouvi P, Robert P, Roussel M, LeGall D, Meulemans T. Dysexecutive syndrome: diagnostic criteria and validation study. Ann Neurol. 2010;68(6):855–64. [PubMed]
58. Yeterian EH, Pandya DN. Prefrontostriatal connections in relation to cortical architectonic organization in rhesus monkeys. J Comp Neurol. 1991;312(1):43–67. [PubMed]
59. Lewis SJ, Dove A, Robbins TW, Barker RA, Owen AM. Cognitive impairments in early Parkinson’s disease are accompanied by reductions in activity in frontostriatal neural circuitry. J Neurosci. 2003;23(15):6351–6. [PubMed]
60. Ray NJ, Strafella AP. The neurobiology and neural circuitry of cognitive changes in Parkinson’s disease revealed by functional neuroimaging. Mov Disord. 2012;27(2):1484–92. [PubMed]
61. Muslimovic D, Post B, Speelman JD, Schmand B. Cognitive profile of patients with newly diagnosed Parkinson disease. Neurology. 2005;65(8):1239–45. [PubMed]
62. Hillman CH, Erickson KI, Kramer AF. Be smart, exercise your heart: exercise effects on brain and cognition. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2008;9(1):58–65. [PubMed]
63. Kramer AF, Erickson KI. Capitalizing on cortical plasticity: influence of physical activity on cognition and brain function. Trends Cogn Sci. 2007;11(8):342–8. [PubMed]
64. Voss MW, Heo S, Prakash RS, et al. The influence of aerobic fitness on cerebral white matter integrity and cognitive function in older adults: Results of a one-year exercise intervention. Hum Brain Mapp. 2012 [PubMed]
65. Colcombe SJ, Kramer AF, McAuley E, Erickson KI, Scalf P. Neurocognitive aging and cardiovascular fitness: recent findings and future directions. J Mol Neurosci. 2004;24(1):9–14. [PubMed]
66. Angevaren M, Aufdemkampe G, Verhaar HJ, Aleman A, Vanhees L. Physical activity and enhanced fitness to improve cognitive function in older people without known cognitive impairment. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;(3):CD005381. [PubMed]
67. Tanaka K, Quadros AC, Jr, Santos RF, Stella F, Gobbi LT, Gobbi S. Benefits of physical exercise on executive functions in older people with Parkinson’s disease. Brain Cogn. 2009;69(2):435–41. [PubMed]
68. Cruise KE, Bucks RS, Loftus AM, Newton RU, Pegoraro R, Thomas MG. Exercise and Parkinson’s: benefits for cognition and quality of life. Acta Neurol Scand. 2011;123(1):13–9. [PubMed]
69. Eadie BD, Redila VA, Christie BR. Voluntary exercise alters the cytoarchitecture of the adult dentate gyrus by increasing cellular proliferation, dendritic complexity, and spine density. J Comp Neurol. 2005;486(1):39–47. [PubMed]
70. Stranahan AM, Khalil D, Gould E. Running induces widespread structural alterations in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. Hippocampus. 2007;17(11):1017–22. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
71. Petzinger GM, Jakowec MW. Animal Models of Basal Ganglia Injury and Degeneration and their Application to Parkinson’s Disease Research. In: Ebadi M, Pfeiffer RF, editors. Parkinson’s Disease. BocaRaton, FL: CRC Press; 2005.
72. Fisher BE, Petzinger GM, Nixon K, et al. Exercise-induced behavioral recovery and neuroplasticity in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-lesioned mouse basal ganglia. J Neurosci Res. 2004;77(3):378–90. [PubMed]
73. Petzinger GM, Walsh JP, Akopian G, et al. Effects of treadmill exercise on dopaminergic transmission in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-lesioned mouse model of basal ganglia injury. J Neurosci. 2007;27(20):5291–300. [PubMed]
74. Tillerson JL, Caudle WM, Reveron ME, Miller GW. Exercise induces behavioral recovery and attenuates neurochemical deficits in rodent models of Parkinson’s disease. Neuroscience. 2003;119(3):899–911. [PubMed]
75. O’Dell SJ, Gross NB, Fricks AN, Casiano BD, Nguyen TB, Marshall JF. Running wheel exercise enhances recovery from nigrostriatal dopamine injury without inducing neuroprotection. Neuroscience. 2007;144(3):1141–51. [PubMed]
76. Smith BA, Goldberg NR, Meshul CK. Effects of treadmill exercise on behavioral recovery and neural changes in the substantia nigra and striatum of the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-lesioned mouse. Brain Res. 2011;1386:70–80. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
77. Pothakos K, Kurz MJ, Lau YS. Restorative effect of endurance exercise on behavioral deficits in the chronic mouse model of Parkinson’s disease with severe neurodegeneration. BMC Neurosci. 2009;10 (1):6. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
78. Gerecke KM, Jiao Y, Pagala V, Smeyne RJ. Exercise Does Not Protect against MPTP-Induced Neurotoxicity in BDNF Happloinsufficent Mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7(8):e43250. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
79. Cohen AD, Tillerson JL, Smith AD, Schallert T, Zigmond MJ. Neuroprotective effects of prior limb use in 6-hydroxydopamine-treated rats: possible role of GDNF. J Neurochem. 2003;85(2):299–305. [PubMed]
80. Real CC, Ferreira AF, Chaves-Kirsten GP, Torrao AS, Pires RS, Britto LR. BDNF receptor blockade hinders the beneficial effects of exercise in a rat model of Parkinson s disease. Neuroscience. 2013 In Press. [PubMed]
81. Wu SY, Wang TF, Yu L, et al. Running exercise protects the substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons against inflammation-induced degeneration via the activation of BDNF signaling pathway. Brain Behav Immun. 2011;25(1):135–46. [PubMed]
82. Tillerson JL, Cohen AD, Philhower J, Miller GW, Zigmond MJ, Schallert T. Forced limb-use effects on the behavioral and neurochemical effects of 6-hydroxydopamine. J Neurosci. 2001;21(12):4427–35. [PubMed]
83. Yin HH, Mulcare SP, Hilario MR, et al. Dynamic reorganization of striatal circuits during the acquisition and consolidation of a skill. Nat Neurosci. 2009;12(3):333–41. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
84. Calabresi P, Picconi B, Tozzi A, Di Filippo M. Dopamine-mediated regulation of corticostriatal synaptic plasticity. Trends Neurosci. 2007;30(5):211–9. [PubMed]
85. VanLeeuwen JE, Petzinger GM, Walsh JP, Akopian GK, Vuckovic M, Jakowec MW. Altered AMPA receptor expression with treadmill exercise in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-lesioned mouse model of basal ganglia injury. J Neurosci Res. 2010;88(3):650–68. [PubMed]
86. Chang PK, Verbich D, McKinney RA. AMPA receptors as drug targets in neurological disease–advantages, caveats, and future outlook. Eur J Neurosci. 2012;35(12):1908–16. [PubMed]
87. Ingham CA, Hood SH, Arbuthnott GW. Spine density on neostriatal neurones changes with 6-hydroxydopamine lesions and with age. Brain Res. 1989;503(2):334–8. [PubMed]
88. Ingham CA, Hood SH, van Maldegem B, Weenink A, Arbuthnott GW. Morphological changes in the rat neostriatum after unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine injections into the nigrostriatal pathway. Exp Brain Res. 1993;93(1):17–27. [PubMed]
89. Cheng HW, Rafols JA, Goshgarian HG, Anavi Y, Tong J, McNeill TH. Differential spine loss and regrowth of striatal neurons following multiple forms of deafferentation: a Golgi study. Exp Neurol. 1997;147(2):287–98. [PubMed]
90. McNeill TH, Brown SA, Rafols JA, Shoulson I. Atrophy of medium spiny I striatal dendrites in advanced Parkinson’s disease. Brain Res. 1988;455(1):148–52. [PubMed]
91. van Spronsen M, Hoogenraad CC. Synapse pathology in psychiatric and neurologic disease. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2010;10(3):207–14. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
92. Day M, Wang Z, Ding J, et al. Selective elimination of glutamatergic synapses on striatopallidal neurons in Parkinson disease models. Nat Neurosci. 2006;9(2):251–9. [PubMed]
93. Neely MD, Schmidt DE, Deutch AY. Cortical regulation of dopamine depletion-induced dendritic spine loss in striatal medium spiny neurons. Neuroscience. 2007;149(2):457–64. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
94. Pysh JJ, Weiss GM. Exercise during development induces an increase in Purkinje cell dendritic tree size. Science. 1979;206(4415):230–2. [PubMed]
95. Cotman CW, Berchtoldb NC. Exercise: a behavioral intervention to enhance brain health and plasticity. Trends in Neurosciences. 2002;25(6):295–301. [PubMed]
96. Swain RA, Harris AB, Wiener EC, et al. Prolonged exercise induces angiogenesis and increases cerebral blood volume in primary motor cortex of the rat. Neuroscience. 2003;117(4):1037–46. [PubMed]
97. Secher NH, Seifert T, Van Lieshout JJ. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism during exercise: implications for fatigue. J Appl Physiol. 2008;104(1):306–14. [PubMed]
98. Cotman CW, Berchtold NC, Christie LA. Exercise builds brain health: key roles of growth factor cascades and inflammation. Trends Neurosci. 2007;30(9):464–72. [PubMed]
99. Fabel K, Tam B, Kaufer D, et al. VEGF is necessary for exercise-induced adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Eur J Neurosci. 2003;18(10):2803–12. [PubMed]
100. Ding YH, Li J, Zhou Y, Rafols JA, Clark JC, Ding Y. Cerebral angiogenesis and expression of angiogenic factors in aging rats after exercise. Curr Neurovasc Res. 2006;3(1):15–23. [PubMed]
101. Villar-Cheda B, Sousa-Ribeiro D, Rodriguez-Pallares J, Rodriguez-Perez AI, Guerra MJ, Labandeira-Garcia JL. Aging and sedentarism decrease vascularization and VEGF levels in the rat substantia nigra. Implications for Parkinson’s disease. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2009;29(2):230–4. [PubMed]
102. Yang J, Sadler TR, Givrad TK, Maarek JM, Holschneider DP. Changes in brain functional activation during resting and locomotor states after unilateral nigrostriatal damage in rats. Neuroimage. 2007;36(3):755–73. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
103. Kleim JA, Freeman JHJ, Bruneau R, et al. Synapse formation is associated with memory storage in the cerebellum. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99(20):13228–31. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
104. Isaacs KR, Anderson BJ, Alcantara AA, Black JE, Greenough WT. Exercise and the brain: angiogenesis in the adult rat cerebellum after vigorous physical activity and motor skill learning. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1992;12(1):110–9. [PubMed]
105. Walsh NP, Gleeson M, Shephard RJ, et al. Position statement. Part one: Immune function and exercise. Exerc Immunol Rev. 2011;17:6–63. [PubMed]
106. Marchetti B, Abbracchio MP. To be or not to be (inflamed)–is that the question in anti-inflammatory drug therapy of neurodegenerative disorders? Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2005;26(10):517–25. [PubMed]
107. Schwartz M. Macrophages and microglia in central nervous system injury: are they helpful or harmful? J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2003;23(4):385–94. [PubMed]
108. Schwartz M, Butovsky O, Bruck W, Hanisch UK. Microglial phenotype: is the commitment reversible? Trends Neurosci. 2006;29(2):68–74. [PubMed]
109. Streit WJ. Microglia as neuroprotective, immunocompetent cells of the CNS. Glia. 2002;40(2):133–9. [PubMed]
110. Huang Y, Halliday GM. Aspects of innate immunity and Parkinson’s disease. Front Pharmacol. 2012;3:33. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
111. Scalzo P, Kummer A, Cardoso F, Teixeira AL. Serum levels of interleukin-6 are elevated in patients with Parkinson’s disease and correlate with physical performance. Neurosci Lett. 2010;468(1):56–8. [PubMed]
112. Cadet P, Zhu W, Mantione K, et al. Cyclic exercise induces anti-inflammatory signal molecule increases in the plasma of Parkinson’s patients. Int J Mol Med. 2003;12(4):485–92. [PubMed]
113. Petersen AM, Pedersen BK. The anti-inflammatory effect of exercise. J Appl Physiol. 2005;98(4):1154–62. [PubMed]
114. Pedersen BK, Febbraio M. Muscle-derived interleukin-6–a possible link between skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, liver, and brain. Brain Behav Immun. 2005;19(5):371–6. [PubMed]
115. Steensberg A, Dalsgaard MK, Secher NH, Pedersen BK. Cerebrospinal fluid IL-6, HSP72, and TNF-alpha in exercising humans. Brain Behav Immun. 2006;20(6):585–9. [PubMed]
116. Perry VH. The influence of systemic inflammation on inflammation in the brain: implications for chronic neurodegenerative disease. Brain Behav Immun. 2004;18(5):407–13. [PubMed]
117. Silveira EM, Rodrigues MF, Krause MS, et al. Acute exercise stimulates macrophage function: possible role of NF-kappaB pathways. Cell Biochem Funct. 2007;25(1):63–73. [PubMed]
118. Wake H, Moorhouse AJ, Nabekura J. Functions of microglia in the central nervous system – beyond the immune response. Neuron Glia Biol. 2012:1–7. In Press. [PubMed]
119. Tremblay ME, Majewska AK. A role for microglia in synaptic plasticity? Commun Integr Biol. 2011;4 (2):220–2. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
120. Kawanishi N, Yano H, Yokogawa Y, Suzuki K. Exercise training inhibits inflammation in adipose tissue via both suppression of macrophage infiltration and acceleration of phenotypic switching from M1 to M2 macrophages in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice. Exerc Immunol Rev. 2010;16:105–18. [PubMed]
121. Vivar C, Potter MC, van Praag H. All About Running: Synaptic Plasticity, Growth Factors and Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis. Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2012 [PubMed]
122. Abrous DN, Koehl M, Le Moal M. Adult neurogenesis: from precursors to network and physiology. Physiol Rev. 2005;85(2):523–69. [PubMed]
123. Marxreiter F, Regensburger M, Winkler J. Adult neurogenesis in Parkinson’s disease. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2013;70(3):459–73. [PubMed]
124. Dobrossy MD, Nikkhah G. Role of experience, training, and plasticity in the functional efficacy of striatal transplants. Prog Brain Res. 2012;200:303–28. [PubMed]
125. Fisher B, Sullivan KJ. Activity-dependent factors affecting post-stroke functional outcomes. Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation. 2001;8(3):31–44. [PubMed]
126. Yogev G, Giladi N, Peretz C, Springer S, Simon ES, Hausdorff JM. Dual tasking, gait rhythmicity, and Parkinson’s disease: which aspects of gait are attention demanding? Eur J Neurosci. 2005;22(5):1248–56. [PubMed]
127. Ashby FG, Turner BO, Horvitz JC. Cortical and basal ganglia contributions to habit learning and automaticity. Trends Cogn Sci. 2010;14(4):208–15. [PMC free article] [PubMed]