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This research refers mainly to exercise and applied movement therapy

There is strong research evidence on the positive effect of excercise and motivational therapy in aiding movement, improving stability and stimulating the brain connections required for better mobility. A summary of some of the main non drug related Parkinson research is listed below in no particular order (highlights were added).

Reserach 1

The European Parkinson Therapy centre applies multi level therapy of which an essential part is based on Neuroplastic change. It is essential to realise that Apathy, life style and stress also impact greatly and much work has been done in integrating btherapy for these aspects. The "Parkinson's Outcomes project" stated clearly that a combination of physical and motivational factors are essential to improve quality of life.

FASI DELLA RICERCA

1.

Physical medicine and Rehabilitation

The Archives of Physical medicine and Rehabilitation back in 1986 published a study by S.S.Palmer that concluded “the Outcomes of these (excercise) programs were similar. The majority of patients in both groups showed improvements in gait, tremor, grip strength and motor coordination on tasks requiring fine control.”

2.

La Dr.ssa M.R. Salati dell’Ospedale di Fidenza (Parma, Italia)

Fidenza Hospital (Parma, Italy) Dr Maria rosa Salati “In Parkinson’s Disease it is useful from the earliest stages of the illness to carry out physical exercises to improve co-ordination and muscular trophism and to prevent muscle shortening and alterations in capsular ligamental articulation….Exercises should be done on a daily basis once the patient has been properly trained during rehabilitation therapy.”

3.

Lisa Shulman M.D.

Lisa Shulman M.D. and researchers from the University of Maryland School of Medicine and the Baltimore VA Medical Center found that Parkinson’s patients who walked on a treadmill at a comfortable speed for a longer duration (low-intensity exercise) improved their mobility and dexterity more than patients who walked for less time but at an increased speed and incline (high-intensity exercise). The investigators also found benefits for stretching and resistance exercises. “These results show that exercise in people with Parkinson’s disease can make a difference in their function. Exercise may, in fact, delay disability and help to preserve independence,” says Lisa Shulman, M.D.,

Dr. Lisa Shulman describes her successful research into the effect of moderate exercise in Parkinson's patients

4.

Rhodes University in Memphis, TN

Rhodes University in Memphis, TN, Dr. Gerecke and researchers found that exercise can protect mice against toxic exposure. (in other words against the chemical that destroys dopemine the chemical responsable for aiding movement and balance). Daily, sustained exercise was necessary for full protection.

5.

Harvard Medical School.

Harvard Medical school.  exercise may be one of the best — and most underutilized — ways of combating the condition, according to the March 2012 Harvard Health Letter. Dr. Edward Wolpow, a neurologist at Harvard-affiliated Mount Auburn Hospital in Cambridge, Mass., and a member of the Health Letter’s editorial board, urges his patients with early Parkinson’s to work on building up their strength, balance, and endurance, “because they will be needed later on.”

7.

Ahlskog et al 2010

Moderate intense exercise stimulates brain growth factors (Ahlskog et al 2010) and maintains variety of movement and flexibility (Blackburn et al 2011). Learning based exercise increases brain volume and memory (Mahnke et al 2006, Heunicks et al 2008).  Intense exercise spares dopamine and dopamine
receptors (Fisher et al 2010). Forced cycling can create greater connectivity between brain regions

8.

University of Quebec

kissBeing passionate toward a given activity will lead the person to engage in the activity frequently (and) will generally lead to the experience of positive emotions during activity engagement. Such emotions, in turn, will foster increases in psychological well-being. Robert J Vallerand Université du Québec.

10.

Il Dott. Zigmond et al.,University of Pittsburgh

University of Pittsburgh, Dr. Zigmond and researchers found that exercise reduces the negative effects “elicited by the dopaminergic neurotoxins as well as the loss of DA neurons”.

11.

Parkinson's outcome project

“Parkinson’s outcome project” Negative mood and depression have the greatest impact on health status… taken together, mood, depression and anxiety, have the greatest effect on quality of life.

12.

Il Dott. Alberts et al., della Cleveland Clinic

Cleveland Clinic, Dr. Alberts and researchers. found that when people with Parkinson’s pedaled on a stationery bike 30% faster than their preferred “voluntary” rate (or forced exertion), they showed improvement in motor function and coordination as well as manual dexterity. This improvement was retained some weeks after the exercise stopped. Jay L. Alberts, discovered how good intense cycling could be quite by accident , as he rode a tandem bike across Iowa with a friend who has the disease. But something surprising happened. Although the disease had already robbed his friend of her ability to write legibly, she could suddenly write her name clearly after the first day of strenuous cycling

Cleveland Clinic researcher Jay Alberts found that bike riding temporarily helped alleviate the effects of the disease.

13.

Beth Fisher University of Sothern California

Beth Fisher and researchers at  the University of Southern California believe that exercise may be helping the brain to maintain old connections, form new ones and restore lost ones. They suggest that, in certain situations, the neuroplasticity created from exercise in patients with PD may actually outweigh the effects of neurodegeneration.

14.

Hirsch (University of North Carolina) e Farley (University of Arizona)

Hirsch (University of North Carolina) and Farley (University of Arizona) in the European Journal of Physical Medicine of June 2009 lamented that “many clinicians and communities remain unaware” of scientific literature underlying exercise-induced brain repair….”

A Model Community NeuroFitness Center of Excellence for Parkinson Exercise in Tucson, AZ. Sponsored by Parkinson Wellness Recovery, a 501(3)(C) nonprofit organization founded by Dr. Becky Farley. All PWR! Gym programs implement the research-based Exercise4BrainChange framework created by Dr. Farley to truly implement Exercise as Medicine for people with Parkinson disease. We are developing the

15.

Bastiaan Bloem, MD (Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Olanda)

Bastiaan Bloem et al “Multidisciplinary Guideline ‘Parkinson’s disease” Parkinson’s disease severely threatens quality of life, The loss in quality of life may increase in each phase, from on average 33% in the early phase to 85% in the late phase.4

The European Parkinson Therapy centre uses the Hoehn and Yahr Staging of Parkinson's Disease
STADIO 1

Symptoms on one side of the body only. Minor interference with quality of life

STADIO 2

Symptoms on both sides of the body.  No impairment of balance but posture and gait effected

STADIO 3

Balance impairment.  Mild to moderate disease.  Physically independent.

STADIO 4

Severe disability, but still able to walk or stand unassisted.

STADIO 5

Wheelchair-bound or bedridden unless assisted.

European Parkinson Therapy Centre